Moldova declared its independence from the USSR on 27 August 1991. In December, Mircea Snegur was elected the first president of the new nation. Moldova's new constitution was adopted on 28 July 1994, replacing the old Soviet constitution of 1979. The Agrarian Democratic Party, composed largely of former Communist officials, won a majority of seats in the new parliament elected the same year.
In 1996, Petru Lucinschi was elected independent Moldova 's second president and in 1998 the second parliamentary elections resulted in a four-party coalition formed against the opposition Communist party which obtained the most votes and 40% of the seats.
Presidential elections in 2001 resulted in the replacement of Lucinschi by the leader of the Communist Party, Vladimir Voronin, and the subsequent election of a Communist government.
The Moldovans are the only people who have repeatedly brought a communist political party to power in a broadly free and fair election in the post communist region. The communist party was re-elected on 6 of March 2005.
At the end of Voronin's second, four-year term, parliamentary elections were held on April 5, 2009. After mass street protests and widespread claims of fraud followed the results of the parliamentary elections, the opposition members elected to parliament boycotted the presidential vote, resulting in the failure of the parliament to choose a new president. After several futile attempts to hold a vote, Voronin was forced to dissolve the parliament in June and announced repeat parliamentary elections to be held on July 29, 2009.
On 28 August, the newly elected Parliament held its first session and elected Mr. Mihai Ghimpu (PL) as its new Speaker.
The election by Parliament of the country's President, set for 23 October, was postponed since there was only one candidate, Mr. Marian Lupu, whose candidacy was endorsed by the coalition government. On 30 October, Parliament passed amendments to allow presidential elections to take place even if there is only one candidate. The article stipulating the dissolution of Parliament after two unsuccessful presidential elections was also modified, so that Parliament can not be dissolved within 365 days of the previous dissolution.
On 10 November, Parliament failed to elect a new President. The only candidate, Mr. Lupu, received 53 votes, eight short of the required 61. The PCRM boycotted the session. On 1 December, Acting President and Speaker Mihai Ghimpu signed a decree establishing a commission to draft a bill amending the Constitution, which would stipulate that the President would be elected with 52 votes (50% plus one) instead of the current 61 (three-fifths). However, members of the Alliance for European Integration opposed the bill and proposed a constitutional referendum that would provide for direct presidential elections. Consequently, the Constitution was not amended. In the second round of presidential elections on 7 December, Parliament once again failed to elect Mr. Lupu. Parliament is now due to be dissolved after 16 June 2010 for early parliamentary elections.